Structure of the Large Intestine Channel

Metal occurs in a Yin and Yang organ form in each of the three Dan-Tian. For the Yin organ forms see the Lung channel

  • – Metal Yang upper Dan-Tian:
  • – sinus cavities
  • – Maxillary sinus – Qi  – the laws of the Qi realm. – corresponds to the vibrational frequency of the laws of manifesting of the Qi realm
  • – frontal sinus- Shen – the laws of the Shen realm – corresponds to the vibrational frequency of the laws of manifesting of the Shen realm
  • – ethmoid sinus– Ling – the laws of the ancestor realm Ethmoid – corresponds to the vibrational frequency of the laws of manifesting of the Ling spiritual realm
  • – sphenoid sinus– Tao – the laws of the Universal / Supracausal realm Sphenoid – corresponds to the vibrational frequency of the laws of manifesting (the ecstatic equilibrium) of the supracausal / Universal

At the large intestine channel, embodied man is made of the four forces within Wood. This is initiated in the four sinus cavities (at the top of the large intestine channel) representing the causal laws underlying the four-fold spiritual (Ling), mental (Shen)  etheric (Qi) and physical (Jing) nature of a human.

The large intestine channel is the causal division into a five bodied being. Jesus takes up the cross. One force unifies four. The supracausal and universal ‘bodies’ are formed first by the Metal energy of the third eye region, corresponding to the Lung channel. Out of this, the four bodies of the spiritual, astral, etheric and physical realms are generated, corresponding to the sphenoid, ethmoid, frontal and maxillary sinus cavities. These sinuses and ontological divisions are expressed in the Large Intestine channel as it connects through the sinuses.

  • – Metal Yang middle Dan-Tian:  
  • – Bronchial system –
  • – Right and Left
  • – Five segmental bronchii
  • – 18 lobar bronchii (tertiary bronchii) leading to 18 hexagonal lobules or bronchio-pulmonary segments – 10 in right lung  8 in left lung
  • – primary bronchioles – many arise from each tertiary bronchus
  • – terminal bronchioles – many arise from each primary bronchiole
  • – respiratory bronchioles- 2-3 per terminal bronchiole
  • – alveolar ducts – 2-11 arise from each respiratory bronchiole          15 million
  • – alveoli – about 20 alveoli arise from each alveolar duct 300 million

This multiple division results in about 23-5 generations of airway, with geometrically increasing numbers and total cross-sectional areas, and decreasing diameters. For example, from one trachea with a diameter of about 180 mm in an adult, by the tenth generation we have 1000 bronchi, each with a diameter of about 1.3 mm; by the twentieth generation we have 1 million bronchioles, each with a diameter of about 0.5 mm; and right at the end there are about 300 million alveoli. The diameter of the alveoli, like that of the bronchi and bronchioles, varies with the degree of lung inflation, in the range 0.1-0.3 mm. The alveolar surface area may be 30-100 m2  Full surface area of 02 exchange maybe up to 300 m2.
For comparison, a tennis court is 260 m2 .

Alveoli increase in number from about 10 to 25 million at birth to several hundred million (300 million) when the lung is fully mature. In adults, number of alveoli varies directly with body length. New alveoli are formed by multiplication of existing ones during the first 8 years after birth. New alveoli are also formed by alveolarization of respiratory bronchioles up until about 3 years of age. The size of individual alveoli increases with age. The total alveolar surface area is 70 to 120 square meters, or about 70 times greater than body surface area.

Metal Yang lower Dan-Tian:                             

  • – L.I. and CV. 4, Containment of the alchemical cauldron – Bian Hua. A Ling level of function, where the large intestine circles the belly in the coronal plane.
  • – Pituitary connection to Lung and Large intestine channels
  • – Cooperative, harmonizing different systems: dysbiosis / symbiosis   (60 % of weight of bowel movement is bacteria)
  • – Social ease, fluidity, social facility, syntony, harmonizing in groups (Shantam Dhiraj)
  • – Responsibility – taking up a burden – IBS and stress
  • – Rhythmic diurnal cycles, regularity of peristalsis, rhythm and dance
  • – Large Intestine Channel
  • – Animal: Dog
  • – opposite animal is Dragon: relevance to cleansing of uterus / liver via colon cleansing. The Shen rises up the ascending colon on the right. It comes up to the East and the rising sun again, here is the Yang Ming, as it rises towards the Liver, the forest.
  • – Branch: Hai – a man and a woman under heaven, or a multitude under heaven
  • – Time: 5 AM to 7 AM. The best time for a bowel movement. The Yang Ming of the rising Sun expels the old, the dark and the night.
  • – Opposite time is 5 – 7 PM. The Kidney is the water moving engine. The Nei Jing says that the Large intestine sends Water to the Kidney.  Large Intestine as a generator of Qi (Bob Flaws  –   Scatology and the Gate of Life)
  • – The Large Intestine is the main organ which pulls water from what has been eaten and drunk. The Kidney Yang pushes the Shen up the ascending colon on the right.
  • – Station of the Cross: Second: Jesus takes up the Cross – responsibility, engagement, task.
  • – Tree of Life  –  sixth branch on the left. Hai –  L.I. On the twelfth branch, the eternity of the divine kingdom.

Clearing Questions

  • – What are you afraid to let go of?
  • – Where in your life do you give too much to others?
  • – Where in your life do you not give enough to others?
  • – In what areas are you not cooperating with your own evolution?
  • – What good things are you avoiding manifesting? Avoiding making into a reality in your life?
  • – What habits do you have?
  • – What recurrent mental arguments or fantasy conversations do you have in your mind?
  • – What inspires you?
  • – What do you love doing that puts you in a peak state?
  • – Who are your heroes? What are you in awe of?

Functions and Indications of the Hand Yang Ming Large Intestine Channel.

Functions of the Hand Yang Ming Large Intestine Channel:

Reaching the face, cheeks, forehead, eyes, nose, lips, gums and teeth, neck, shoulders, throat, skin, Lung and Large Intestine. Expelling Wind, Cold, Heat, Interior Heat, Blood Heat, Yang Ming Fire, Fire poison, from the Four Levels. Clearing the Lungs and opening the water passages.

Symptoms associated with the Hand Yang Ming Large Intestine Channel:

Fever, parched mouth and thirst, sore throat, nosebleed, toothache, red and painful eyes, neck pain and swelling, pain along the course of the Channel.

Large Intestine 1    Jing Well Point    Metal Point (Horary Point)  

Shang Yang

Trade Yang   Metal Yang    Shang Yang  Merchant of Yang (Jue Yang – Extreme of Yang)

Shang refers to the 5th note corresponding to metal, and The LI channel is a Yang channel. ((I&F), (GTW))

LI. 1 Clears Wind Heat – treats high fever, toothache, sore throat, tinnitus and deafness (LI. 1 has a special range of action on the ear).

LI. 1 Clears Internal Heat so it is good for revival from coma, fainting and high fever. (Jing Well points are good for revival)

LI. 1 clears fullness in the chest (this is also a Jing Well point function, to clear fullness below the Heart. An internal branch of the Lung Channel comes from L.7 to this point accentuating its Lung clearing effect)

LI. 1 expels Wind and cold from channel causing Bi Pain- for which it is moxa-ed (Jing Well point function).

Lu. 11 more effective for acute tonsillitis, LI. 1 more effective for fever with absence of sweating. (J.R.)

This point can clear the mind. (J.R.)

For very stubborn or withdrawn patients. Patient gets very cold (metallic) and cannot communicate. This point can help to remove the patients first ‘mask’ layer, so they will be more honest. (Wors.)

Excellent for shoulder, arm and neck problems and ‘frozen’ joints (Metal point of Metal Channel).

“Dental Point” (De La Fuye) 

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Large Intestine 2    Ying Spring point  Water point

Er Jian

Second Space   Between Two    Second Interval   Second Section   Second Instance

(Jian Gu – between the valley)

Second Interval indicates this points ordinal position on the channel. (I&F), (GTW)

LI. 2 is a Ying Spring Point, LI. 2 is also the sedation point in five elements (Water being the child of Metal, therefore sedating it). so it Clears Heat and Cools.

LI. 2 Especially Clears Heat in the upper portions of the Channel. to treat toothache, sore throat, nosebleed.

LI. 2 is also indicated for earache, fear and Lower back pain (think Kidney- Water).

Fluid in chest, acute weeping eczema of the face (excess of water) It is the sedation point, so for Heat constipation, dry sore throat, dry mouth (lack of water) (Wors.).

Not as often used as LI.1 (J.R.)

“Abdominal Calm Point” (De La Fuye)

close to Dr. Dong Shi Jing Chang point da Bai for Lower back pain
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Large Intestine 3      Shu Stream Point               Wood Point

San Jian

««

Third Space  Between Three  Third Interval  Third Section  Third Instance          (Shao Gu – Lesser Valley)

San = 3, Jian = space…it is the third point on the Channel in the depression proximal To the second metacarpal bone (GTW), (I&F)   

LI. 3 is a Shu Stream point and a Wood Point, for both reasons it is indicated for treating joint problems, especially locally.

LI. 3 has many of the same indications as LI. 2.

Metal controls wood, this is the wood point so we see many indications that reflect Wind, which is associated with Wood.

LI. 3 is indicated for Wind in joints- esp. the joints of the hand;

LI. 3 is indicated for Wind in the Intestines with borborygmus and diarrhea

LI. 3 is indicated for  External wind heat in the Eyes and throat (also liver influenced organs).

Close to Dr. Tong point ‘Da Bai’ for Lower Back Pain.

Has a tremendous effect on children, especially for throat disorders, constipation and diarrhea (Wors.) (Children often respond to points that clear Liver wind, being more constitutionally prone to Excess and Internal Wind).

For patients that like to stretch (Liver again). (Wors.)

Sore and cracked lips, nose problems (Wors.).

LI. 3 can be needled perpendicularly through to SI. 3. The hand should be kept in the loose fist position to keep the metacarpal bones aligned.
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Large Intestine 4    Yuan Source point

He Gu        

«««««

Joining Valley Adjoining Valleys Closing Valley Grain Valley  Harmonious Valley

(Hu Kou – Tiger’s Mouth)

Adjoining Valleys refers to the location between the first and second metacarpals.

EX PELS WIND AND HEAT FROM THE HEAD AND FACE        

This point Expels Wind and also Heat for any external wind invasion of the respiratory system, the head or face, sensory organs, Lung, Large Intestine or Channel.

LI.4 is a Point of special action for the head and face.- so it can treat headache, earache, toothache, nasal and sinus problems, sore throat, mouth, jaw and tongue problems, eye problems etc.

LI.4 can tonify Qi. (Yuan Source point) Esp. Wei Qi.  So for immunity- immediate to expel pathogenic invasion and long term to strengthen Defensive Qi.

LI.4 powerfully moves the Qi of the whole body- so for Qi stagnation depression and anxietyAlso therefore anti-spasmodic for Intestinal or Uterine pain etc.Bi pain in the Channel etc.

LI. 4 pulls the Qi down- so for constipation, amenorrhea, to facilitate labor etc .

LI. 4 Stimulates the dispersing function of the lungs (Lung Channel connects to this point from L.7.LI. Channel is the Yang External aspect of the Lungs).

LI.4 Descends rebellious Qi. Can aid the Lung, Stomach and Liver Qi in descending.

Close to Dr. Tong points (Dr. Dong Shi Jing Chang) Ling Gu and Da Bai for Lower Back Pain.

Used for retention of fluid, thoughts and feces. LI. 4 and UB. 59 are the best points for removing toxins and poisons from the body/mind. Both are known as the ‘Great Eliminator’. (Wors.)

First aid for ear ache, dull pain, poisoning and acupuncture blackout. (Wors.)

A much over used point . (Wors.)

Perpendicular insertion or oblique insertion angled proximally ½ to1 ½ cun or threaded through to P. 8.
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Large Intestine 5          Jing River Point                   Fire point

«««

Yang Xi

Yang Stream      Yang Creek  (Zhong Kui –  middle prominence)

Yang Stream refers to this point’s location in a stream like depression between two tendons on the yang aspect of the wrist where the channel Qi is vital and intense like a mountain stream (I&F), (GTW)

GOOD FOR SORE THROAT, CALMS THE SHEN,

TREATS SMOKING WITHDRAWAL                     

Clears Heat more than Wind from LI. Channel areas (nose, ears eyes, teeth, head, throat)

Clears Yang Ming heat from the heart causing Shen disturbance.- Yang madness.

LI. 5is a Jing River point so it is especially indicated for the throat and speech. LI. 5 is a good wrist local point.

LI. 5 is a good for smoking withdrawal-(it is the fire point on the Metal Channel) it is also close to extra point ‘Gan Wei’ for this.

Remarkable effect on mental disorders LI.5 brings more stability to people than

LI.4. For people who see ghosts and spirits. For “mad” people who want to throw off their clothes and for delusions of grandeur. (Wors.)

Perpendicular insertion ½ to 1 cun.
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Large Intestine 6     Luo point

«««

Pian Li

Veering Passage    Slanting Passage   Partial Order   Page of History        Side Path

Veering Passage refers to the luo channel that veers away from this point.

TREATS UPPER BODY EDEMA

LI. 6 Clears Wind and Heat from LI. Channel areas to treat toothache, conjunctivitis, rhinitis, epistaxis, facial paralysis.

LI. 6 is  the Luo point- so it connects with the Lungs and is effective for opening the water passages when Lung Qi has failed to descend water. As such it is used to treat upper body edema, difficult urination, ascites, borborygmus (fluid in abdomen), fluid accumulation in the chest.

The Luo Channel goes to the Ear, so LI. 6 is more indicated for ear symptoms than most other LI. Channel points. It treats tinnitus and deafness.

Has a marked mental effect esp. in manic depression. (G.M.) (Luo point function) For both edema and psychological problems relating to the Lungs, LI.6 can be used as an alternate to Lu. 7 (J.R.) (One should bear in mind that LI. 6 is located on the same ridge of the radius as Lu. 7, about 11/2 cun more proximal, hence their overlapping functions and indications)
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Large Intestine 7            Xi cleft point.

««

Wen Liu

Warm Flow   Warm Current   Warm Slide   Warm Dwelling  Temperate Flow (Ni Zhu – contrary pouring,   She Tou – snake’s head,    Chi Tou – Pool Head)

Warm Dwelling refers to the warm yang Qi that gathers at this point. -(GTW)

Temperate Flow refers to this points ability to balance and soften Qi flow.-(I&F)

HAS A SPECIAL RANGE OF ACTION ON THE MOUTH,

TONGUE AND THROAT

LI. 7 is the Xi cleft point, so it is used for acute conditions due to accumulations of pathogenic Qi. As such it treats facial paralysis, Bi pain along the course of the Channel, etc.

LI. 7 has a special range of action on the mouth, tongue and throat, treating stomatitis, herpes, gingivitis, glossitis etc.

LI. 7 also treats acute Bi pain along the course of the Channel (Xi Cleft point function)

LI. 7 also treats acute Shen disturbance and both yang madness and Yin madness.

LI. 7 sends a warm current of Chi to warm up the cold inert Metal (Wors.)

LI. 7 treats swollen tongue and speech difficulties. (Wors.)

Can be used as an alternative to LI.4 for severe acute painful Channel indications (J.R.)
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Large Intestine 8

««

Xia Lian

Lower angle   Lower Integrity   Inferior Region    Lower Aspect Below Aside

Lower Ridge refers to its location on the ridge(radius) of the arm. -(GTW)

LI. 8 Reflexes the Small Intestine and St. 39 the Lower He Sea Point of the Small Intestine -as such it can treat pain and fullness in the abdomen, peri-umbilical pain, diarrhea and hematuria. (Heart Heat transfers to the Small Intestine and then the UB causing blood in the urine).

LI. 8 has some effect on the breast ( the LI. divergent channel goes to the breast. There is also a relationship between the SI Channel and the breast -c.f.  SI. 1, and the Small Intestine organ and the Breasts – St. 39, the Lower He Sea of the Small Intestine has breast indications) .

LI. 8 also treats Yang madness (S.I.-Heart connection)
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Large Intestine 9

««

Shang Lian

Upper Angle  Upper Integrity  Superior Region   Upper Aspect    Upper Side   Upper Ridge

Upper Ridge refers to its location on the ridge of the radius. (GTW)

LI. 9 Reflexes the Large Intestine and St. 37 – so it treats borborygmus and abdominal pain.

LI. 9 is a Reflex area (with LI.10) for bi pain of the shoulder and arm (TCM) and the neck (Japanese acupuncture).

If this point is spontaneously tender it indicates ‘brain fatigue’ (Wors.)

Treats swollen, rheumatic knees, loss of sensation in the limbs and cold feeling in the bones (Wors.)

Treats paralysis or atony of the bladder (Wors.)
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Large Intestine 10

«««

Shou San Li

Arm Three Miles      Arm’s Three Measures,

Arm 3 miles like Zu San Li (Both are Yang Ming channel points below the joint) suggests the ability to boost strength and endurance for three more miles. (I&F)

The Li character may mean to rectify, as in this point’s ability to rectify the three burners-(GTW)

TREATS ABDOMINAL PAIN, CONSTIPATION AND DIARRHEA

LI. 10 Reflexes the Stomach and St. 36 (Zu San Li – Foot Three Miles), so it is used for abdominal pain constipation and diarrhea in much the same way as    St. 36 is used.

Like St 36 it moves Qi and Blood – and is used a lot for motor impairment of the arm and Bi pain.

LI. 10 is also thought to tonify Qi and Blood (again like St. 36)and it is used for general circulation- cold hands and feet, stomach ache (Spleen Qi Deficiency) etc.

LI. 10 can also be used for lumbar pain.

LI. 10 is a major point in Japanese acupuncture for building Immunity and expelling Wind. Used when there are swollen glands, prolonged upper respiratory tract infections, weak constitution and Spleen Qi Deficiency.

LI. 10 is a major point in Japanese acupuncture for treating the neck and shoulder.                                                                                   

LI. 10 treats throat disorders, tonsillitis, swelling in neck and goiter. (Wors.)

“Intellectual Exhaustion point” (de La Fuye)

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Large Intestine 11            He Sea Point                        Earth point

«««««    Ghost Point

Qu Chi

Pool at the Crook,    Crooked Pool,   Crooked Pond,    Corner Pond (Gui Tui – Ghost’s Leg,       Yang Ze – Yang Marsh)

Crooked Pool refers to the location at the bend in the elbow and the flow of Qi as it slows down and spreads out. (I&F)

CLEARS HEAT AT THE QI LEVEL, CLEARS DAMP HEAT,

LOWERS BLOOD PRESSURE

LI. 11 Clears Heat from the four levels, the Wei, Qi, Ying and Blood levels.

LI. 11 is one of the main points to clear Wind, Heat and fire.

LI. 11clears Wind-Heat from LI. Channel areas (nose, ears eyes, teeth, head, throat) as such it treats coryza, allergies, red and itching eyes, toothache, rhinitis, sinusitis, hayfever, hot flashes.

LI. 11 clears Heat at the Qi level treating, fever, febrile influenza etc.

LI. 11 Clears heat in the Blood treating the skin. (he sea point function).

LI. 11 Descends rebellious Qi (He sea point function) in vomiting, and diarrhea.

LI. 11 Clears damp heat – treating Damp-Heat skin lesions, and Damp-Heat in the Middle and Lower Jiao with such symptoms as food poisoning, dysentery, urinary tract infections etc.

LI. 11 Lowers blood pressure for which it is one of the main points.(it descends Qi, clears heat, eliminates wind).

LI. 11 Relaxes Muscular tension and relieves pain. Used in Bi pain of the arm, atrophy syndrome and paralysis.

LI. 11 alleviates damp and moistens dry – to treat yin deficient constipation, dry skin etc (earth nourishes metal)

LI. 11 is a ghost point. It clears Yang Ming heat affecting the heart spirit.

LI. 4 more for early stages of Wind Heat, LI.11 clears Wind, but is used more when the Wind Heat is moving  to the Yang Ming level (J.R.)

 “Mental precision point” “Antispasmodic point” Treats internal devils. Gives stability (tonification earth point) in epilepsy, depression, insanity (Wors.)

Best point for chronic constipation. (Wors.)

 “Anti-spasmodic point”      “Mental precision point”   (de la Fuye)

LI. 11 can be needled perpendicularly or needled through to Ht. 3
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Large Intestine 12

«

Zhou Liao

Elbow Crevice          Elbow Seam             Elbow Bone Hole

Elbow Bone-Hole is named for its location in a depression at the elbow (GTW)

Used as a local point, primarily for disorders involving the elbow, especially lateral epicondylitis (tennis elbow) with pain radiating upwards.

Indicated for Wind taxation (Feng Lao) with lassitude and contraction, numbness and immobility of the upper arm.

good for lateral epicondylitis- tennis elbow (G.M.)
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Large Intestine 13

«

Shou Wu Li

Arm Five Miles   Five Measures on the Arm Arm Five Li  (Wu Li -Five Miles / Chi Zhi Wu Li – Cubit five miles)

LI. 13 is a local point for the elbow and upper arm. It is not very commonly used.

LI. 13 has indications for scrofula, also diminished Qi, desire to sleep, intermittent low grade fever, malaria, blurred vision fullness below the heart. All these indications suggest a state of advanced illness.

LI. 13 is indicated for coughing, dyspnea and vomiting blood.

LI. 13 is indicated for fear and fright.

Nei Jing Ling Shu says care must be paid to needle LI. 13 correctly,  as it can interrupoint the flow of Qi to the five Zang organs. (Nei Jing Ling Shu Ch.1

‘9 needles and 12 Source points’)

Forbidden point – this point is at the sight of the radial collateral artery and vein (ATRSG)
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Large Intestine 14            meeting (crossing) point of the LI., SI., UB. and Yang Wei Channels

««

Bi Nao

Upper Arm    Arm and Scapula

Upper Arm refers to it’s location and area of effect. (I&F), (GTW)

LI. 14 treats Bi pain locally at the deltoid and between the elbow and shoulder.

LI. 14 is indicated for wasting and weakness of the upper arm and the inability to raise the arm.

LI. 14 Is indicated for Goiter and scrofula -therefore it clears lymph congestion on the Channel.

LI. 14 is indicated to treat stiff neck.

LI. 14 treats redness and swelling of the Eyes.

In some traditions LI. 14  is said to increase psychic energies and abilities, specifically the ability to see auras.

Treats scrofula and resolves phlegm masses. (GM)

To treat the eyes needle upwards (GM)
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Large Intestine 15               meeting (crossing) point of LI. and Yang Qiao Channels

««««

Jian Yu

Shoulder Bone   (Bian Gu – upper arm bone / Pian Jian – Beside the upper arm /Zhong Jian Jing –  Middle of the Shoulder Well)

Shoulder Bone refers to location and area of influence. (I&F), (GTW)

THE MAIN LOCAL SHOULDER POINT

LI. 15 treats Bi pain, atrophy and traumatic injury of the shoulder.

This is the most important point for treating the shoulder. Like all important points for musculoskeletal disorders, LI. 15 promotes the circulation of Qi and Blood, to move Qi and Blood stagnation locally.

LI. 15 eliminates Wind in musculoskeletal disorders such as Wind Stroke, Wind Atrophy (Feng Wei) and Wind Taxation (Feng Lao)

LI. 15 is also an accessory point for systemic Wind and Heat treating  hypertension, dry skin and excessive sweating.

LI. 15 is indicated for Wind and Wind Heat skin rashes and urticaria.

LI. 15, like LI. 14, treats Goiter, scrofula -lymph congestion.

LI. 15 is indicated for Seminal emission from exhaustion (yang Qiao connection? Marrow connection? see LI.16)

In the Nei Jing, LI. 15 is listed as one of the ‘Eight points for Draining Heat from the Extremities’ along with Lu. 2, UB. 40 and GV. 2      .

In addition to being a crossing point of the LI and Yang Qiao Channels, the tendon-muscle channels of the UB and Lung bind here and the Small Intestine luo-connecting channel arises at SI. 7 and ends at LI. 15. (M. of A.) This emphasizes the dynamic Qi and Blood moving nature of LI. 15.

With the arm abducted, LI. 15 can be needled perpendicularly towards the center of the axilla.

LI. 15 can be needled 11/2 cun towards the elbow.

LI. 15 can be threaded under the acromion.
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Large Intestine 16           meeting (crossing) point of LI. and Yang Qiao Channels

««

Ju Gu

Great Bone

Great Bone refers to it’s location and area of influence at the articulation of the clavicle and scapula. -(GTW)

TREATS CHRONIC SHOULDER IMPAIRMENT

LI. 16 is indicated for Blood stagnation in shoulder problems. It is used to treat chronic and recalcitrant disorders of the shoulder. It is primarily a local acting point

LI. 16 is an accessory point for blood stagnation in the chest with coughing and vomiting of blood.

LI. 16, like LI. 14 and 15, is indicated for goiter and scrofula – implying lymph congestion.

LI. 16 can descend the Lung Qi treating asthma. (note – GB. 21 on top of the shoulder also descends the Qi in coughing, vomiting etc.)

In the Nei Jing LI. 16 is listed as a meeting (Influential) point of marrow.

Stimulates the descending of Lung Qi and opens the chest. Treats dyspnea, coughing and asthma from the lung Qi not descending (GM)

Deep medial needling could cause a pneumothorax, especially in thin patients.
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Large Intestine 17

«

Tian Ding

Heaven’s Tripod      Heaven’s Vessel     Celestial Tripod (Tian Ding – Heaven’s Top or Heaven’s Peak)

Celestial Tripod indicates it’s location and affect on the neck which is the tripod that supports the celestial head.  (GTW)

LI. 17 is hardly ever used except for the following local indications:

Sudden loss of voice, hoarseness, paralysis of the tongue, throat Bi pain, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), rattling in the throat, scrofula and goiter.

This is an important gate for inhaling the Heavenly Qi. Hence the name (R.Liao)
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Large Intestine 18             Window of Heaven point

««

Fu Tu

Support the Prominence    Protuberance Assistance (Shui Xue – Water Cave, Water acupuncture point)

Protuberance assistance indicates it’s location near the adam’s apple and its local functions. (GTW)  

Fu literally means four fingers breadth which is the distance from the laryngeal prominence. -(I&F)

LI. 18 is primarily used for Throat and voice problems with local indications of sore throat, dysphagia (difficulty swallowing), dysphasia (difficulty talking) and aphasia (loss of voice) Traditionally it is indicated for ‘making sounds in the throat like a duck’ and ‘making sounds in the throat like a frog’.

LI. 18 is indicated for coughing and wheezing.

LI. 18 treats goiter, scrofula  and parotitis (mumps) so it treats lymph congestion .

LI. 18 is one of the original five Window of Heaven points listed in the Nei Jing, thus it treats stagnation of QI and phlegm in the neck and Ni counterflow Qi causing wheezing, cough and sudden loss of voice.

For grief, bereavement and inability to break out of self imposed isolation   (J.R.)

Due to the proximity of LI. 18 to the Carotid artery and the carotid baro-receptors, LI. 18 can exert a sympathetico-mimetic  influence on the autonomic nervous system thus treating hypotension and dyspnea and coughing (R. Liao)

LI. 18 can treat pain in the opposite hip (F. Mann)

The divergent channels of the Lu. And LI. Channels unite here. (R. Lowe)

Deep needling at this point may puncture the carotid artery or the jugular vein.
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Large Intestine 19

«

(Kou) He Liao

(Mouth) Grain Crevice         Grain Seam              Grain Bone-hole (Chang Jia – Strong Cheek )

Grain Bone-hole indicates the location, where a depression can be found the size of a grain of rice. (GTW)

LI. 19 is indicated for local symptoms of the nose and sinuses such as epistaxis (nosebleed), nasal congestion, rhinitis, anosmia (loss of sense of smell), nasal polyps etc.

LI. 19 is also indicated for the local symptoms of lockjaw, facial paralysis, toothache, gum problems and deviation of the mouth.

LI. 19 has some of the revival indications of nearby G.V. 26, such as loss of consciousness and death like inversion, but it is not considered a major point for this.
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Large Intestine 20              meeting (crossing) point of the St. and LI. Channels.

«««

Ying Xiang

Welcome Fragrance  (Chong Yang – Heavy Yang)

Welcome Fragrance indicates it’s location next to and effect on the nasal orifice.  Also Fragrance is associated with the earth phase which refers to this points intersection with the ST channel. (I&F), (GTW)

THE MAIN LOCAL NOSE POINT

LI. 20 is the most important local point for treating the nose and Sinuses.

It is indicated for sneezing, hayfever, nasal congestion, profuse rhinorrhea (nasal discharge), rhinitis, anosmia (loss of sense of smell), nasal polyps, epistaxis (nosebleed), etc.

LI. 20 is also indicated for facial paralysis, trigeminal neuralgia, mouth and face awry, deviation of the mouth and facial tics. (LI. 20 is a crossing point of the two Yang Ming Channels, which dominate the face, hence its use in promoting the circulation of Qi and Blood in the facial area).

LI. 20 is indicated for the pain of roundworms in the bile duct (LI. 20 is close to the Liver and Small Intestine area in facial diagnostics and the diagnostic area for signs of pediatric parasite infestation).

LI. 20 is commonly needled medio-superiorly towards extra point Bi Tong for nasal indications.

LI. 20 is commonly needled through to St. 2 for the pain of roundworm in the bile ducts.